A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Civilization of by Muriel H. Wright

By Muriel H. Wright

Greater than a century and a part in the past Oklahoma was once selected to develop into the house of the purple guy within the usa. this present day, sixty-seven tribes as greatly divergent because the 5 Civilized Tribes from the Southeast, the Plains tribes from the West, the Seneca from Ohio, and the indigenous Osage live inside of its limitations. extra Indian tribes have retained their personality and id in Oklahoma than in the other country of the Union. even as, the yankee Indian in Oklahoma is very revered colleague of his white modern in enterprise, the professions, artwork, tune, and in any other stroll of existence. it's major that there are not any reservations within the nation. lots of the Indians are sleek americans in customs, conduct, and get dressed and feature an identical way of life as the other citizen of the country. Nowhere else within the usa are available one of these mixing of the blood and the civilization of the Anglo-American and the yank Indian. This advisor to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma lists alphabetically the tribes in the nation- twenty-nine of that have retained their tribal identification within the jurisdiction of a number of the Indian businesses, and thirty-eight small tribes and fragments of tribes not well-known individually. No similar paintings has been issued because Frederick Webb Hodge's guide of yank Indians North of Mexico used to be released in volumes in 1910 and 1911. the current encyclopedic therapy of the topic of Oklahoma indians give you the following info for many tribes: starting place of the tribal identify, linguistic inventory, actual features, current position, numbers, historical past, executive and association, modern lifestyles and tradition, and ceremonials and public dances. moreover, there's a checklist of recommended studying referring to each one tribe. quantity 33 within the Civilizations of the yankee Indian sequence

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Three years later, at the suggestion of President Washington, Congress authorized the establishment of trading posts under the direction of the President, with the hope that through fair dealing and fair prices the Indians could be induced to trade with government stores, thus overcoming the evil influence of non-government traders who sold intoxicants to Indians. The trading posts on Indian lands grew into industrial centers, and rights for public highways from one to another were soon granted in treaties with the tribes.

The latter movement had begun before the war, when lands owned under the Choctaw patent west of the ninety-eighth meridian had been leased to the government for the settlement of other tribes under the terms of the Choctaw-Chickasaw treaty of 1855. The Caddo and other small tribes seeking escape from the Texans had been moved in 1859 from their reservation on the Brazos River in Texas to land on the Washita River near present Anadarko. During and immediately after the Civil War, the tribes in the West, including the Navaho, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Apache, Comanche, Kickapoo, and Sioux, were continually on the warpath, roused by the atrocities perpetrated on the tribes in California and by the surge of white immigration farther and farther into the Indian country.

Francis River in what is now the state of Arkansas Page 11 as early as 1775, and other Cherokee came to this location in 1794. A band of Delaware came west from Ohio and settled in Missouri in 1789. Choctaw hunting and war parties ranged west in the region between the Arkansas and the Canadian and the Red rivers as far as the Great Plains long before 1800. Trade with the Osage brought about the first step toward establishing permanent settlement of Indian tribes within the boundaries of Oklahoma.

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