By Brian Rapper, Caitriona McLeish
In view that September eleven, governments and the general public at huge in lots of nations have raised critical issues approximately medical learn within the existence sciences that would inadvertently facilitate the improvement of organic or chemical guns. This cutting-edge quantity examines the total quantity of the problems and debates.Coverage contains an summary of modern medical achievements in virology, microbiology, immunology and genetic engineering that allows you to asking how they could facilitate the construction of guns of mass destruction by means of country, sub-state or terrorist businesses. awareness is given to what we've got and haven’t discovered from the earlier. utilising either educational research and reflections by way of practitioners, the ebook examines the security-inspired governance regimes for the existence sciences which are lower than improvement. eventually the authors learn what's required to shape a complete and attainable “web of prevention” and spotlight the significance of encouraging discussions among lecturers and coverage makers concerning the governance of important yet probably harmful examine.
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Additional resources for A Web of Prevention: Biological Weapons, Life Sciences and the Future Governance of Research
Exploring the differing conceptualizations of dual use found in regulatory responses to the biological weapons problem and governance initiatives, McLeish details three distinct models of dual use that are currently evident. Complementary to an extent, she reflects on whether such differing conceptualizations might lead to lost governance opportunities through the exclusion of stakeholders and unhelpful competition. McLeish calls for an intellectual space to be opened where relevant security, technology and innovation experts, together with all interested stakeholders, can work together to strengthen the foundations of the web of prevention.
The existence of networks between governments is not novel. However, while government networks themselves are not new, a number of factors distinguish contemporary networks from their predecessors. As identified by Slaughter (2004, pp10–11), these include the ‘scale, scope and type’ of transgovernmental ties, the ‘wider array of functions’ performed than in the past, and the fact that they have ‘spread far beyond regulators to judges and legislators’. Reflecting the complexity of countering biological weapons and the rise of networks in other areas of international relations, in 2006 the UN SecretaryGeneral proposed the creation of: 3213 J&J A Web of Prevention 8 31/8/07 2:40 pm Page 8 A Web of Prevention … a forum that will bring together the various stakeholders – Governments, industry, science, public health, security, the public writ large – into a common program, built from the bottom up, to ensure that biotechnology’s advances are used for the public good and that the benefits are shared equitably around the world.
He proposes that an international standard-setting body should be responsible for defining experiments of concern and for reviewing those that are most critical. This is also the view of Steinbruner and Okutani (2004). They propose that certain lines of scientific enquiry should be prevented and that there should be an international body empowered to make such legally binding determinations. Similarly, Corneliussen (2006) questions the value of self-regulatory codes of conduct unless they are accompanied by other measures, including mandated regulatory measures that are backed by sanctions and real threats of serious penalties.