By Gerd Nonneman
Within the post-9/11 weather, the function of heart jap and North African (MENA) states in Europe’s nearby defense setting and overseas politics has turn into greater than ever a spotlight for recognition, yet is still ill-understood. This e-book offers a framework for the research of center japanese overseas regulations often, and for figuring out those states’ relatives with Europe particularly. The publication fills a spot within the literature on Euro-Middle japanese kin by means of adopting a south-to-north viewpoint, utilizing the instruments of overseas coverage research to check the determinants of the international guidelines of the MENA states themselves: purely therefore can one wish to reach at a real knowing of what underlies those states’ evolving coverage orientations and behavior in the direction of Europe. the amount begins by means of laying out a conceptual framework for research, and studying the household, neighborhood, and overseas environments that MENA international rules. genuine coverage output is then systematically investigated via quite a lot of state case experiences starting from the Maghreb and the Mashreq to the Gulf and Turkey. Europe is taken care of all through either as a goal of these international guidelines, and as a part of the surroundings that shapes them. the results of a two-year undertaking subsidized by means of the ecu collage Institute’s Mediterranean Programme, the e-book is helping bridge the divide among heart East services and the self-discipline of diplomacy. The systematic comparative research of MENA states’ international coverage with distinctive connection with Europe throws new mild on questions about ‘Third international’ overseas coverage.
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Additional resources for Analysing Middle Eastern Foreign Policies: The Relationship With Europe
Moreover, the relative eclipsing of Arab and Islamic ideological themes is not necessarily irreversible. As Hinnebusch suggests,16 it is at least conceivable that the combined increasing pressures on regimes from above (the attempted assertion of US hegemony plus globalization/economic liberalization) and below (due to government failure and economic liberalization, together with restiveness over Western and regime policy in the region), could result in a return to greater prominence of regional themes.
4. 25 National security interests/raison d’e´tat – in economic, military security, and territorial terms. The interests of rulers/ruling families (including dynastic rivalries). For the GCC states in particular, the two key driving concerns in their regional foreign policy have been external and domestic security. For the former, three means have been pursued: external protectors; collective security within the GCC; and the ‘management’ of regional relations through cautious diplomacy (including ‘riyal-politik’).
For MENA states, Europe offers actual and potential markets (for oil, gas and petrochemicals in the case of the oil producers, and mainly for textiles and agricultural produce for the remainder) and, in the case of North Africa, labor markets. Viewed from the European side, it is the secure supply of predictably priced energy resources – mainly from Algeria, Libya and the Gulf – that is the key economic concern, along with access to the markets of the Gulf. Europe’s dependence on MENA energy exports (running at about 30 percent) is in itself a potential resource for the MENA exporters, either passive or active – although its active deployment has been shown to be highly problematic.