By Henryk Morawiec; Danuta Stróż
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X-ray crystallography offers us with the main actual photo we will be able to get of atomic and molecular buildings in crystals. It offers a troublesome bedrock of structural ends up in chemistry and in mineralogy. In biology, the place the constructions should not absolutely crystalline, it might probably nonetheless offer helpful effects and, certainly, the impression right here has been innovative.
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Additional info for Applied crystallography
When compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP and their alloys became important to the electro-optic field, special Czochralski techniques had to be developed because they have high vapor pressures at elevated temperatures. In 1962, Metz et al.  were the first to report the use of molten B2O3 as a melt encapsulant for the Czochralski growth of PbTe. Both Pb and Te are volatile at the compounds melting temperature, and they successfully sought to cap the melt to prevent losses. In 1965, Mullins et al.
It was heated from the bottom by two concentric heaters, an inner one to keep the bottom center somewhat under saturated. In this way, errant crystallites that have fallen to the bottom would dissolve. The outer heater controlled the overall solution temperature. The important feature introduced by Holden was the rotating seed holder (called a “spider”). The seed crystals were mounted on spokes emanating from the rotation shaft. Several sets of spokes holding the seeds were used along the vertical axis.
In the same year, Nassau and Van Uitert  were the first to use the Czochralski’s method to grow a high-quality oxide crystal. They prepared laser crystals of Nd:CaWO4. During the following decade, the Czochralski method was vigorously pursued in many research and industrial laboratories around the World. A wide variety of important optical materials were grown, including LiNbO3 [87,88], LiTaO3 , Bi12Ge(or Si)O20 and SrxBa1–xNb2O6 , YAG (Y3Al5O12) , Nd:YAG , Sapphire [93,94], and Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) .