Applied Scanning Probe Methods V: Scanning Probe Microscopy by Sadik Hafizovic, Kay-Uwe Kirstein, Andreas Hierlemann

By Sadik Hafizovic, Kay-Uwe Kirstein, Andreas Hierlemann (auth.), Professor Bharat Bhushan, Satoshi Kawata, Professor Dr. Harald Fuchs (eds.)

The scanning probe microscopy ?eld has been quickly increasing. it's a not easy job to assemble a well timed assessment of this ?eld with an emphasis on technical dev- opments and business functions. It grew to become glaring whereas modifying Vols. I–IV that an enormous variety of technical and applicational facets are current and quickly - veloping around the globe. contemplating the luck of Vols. I–IV and the truth that additional colleagues from best laboratories have been able to give a contribution their newest achie- ments, we determined to extend the sequence with articles touching ?elds now not lined within the past volumes. The reaction and aid of our colleagues have been very good, making it attainable to edit one other 3 volumes of the sequence. unlike to- cal convention complaints, the utilized scanning probe tools intend to offer an summary of contemporary advancements as a compendium for either sensible purposes and up to date easy examine effects, and novel technical advancements with recognize to instrumentation and probes. the current volumes hide 3 major components: novel probes and strategies (Vol. V), charactarization (Vol. VI), and biomimetics and business purposes (Vol. VII). quantity V contains an summary of probe and sensor applied sciences together with built-in cantilever thoughts, electrostatic microscanners, low-noise equipment and more advantageous dynamic strength microscopy concepts, high-resonance dynamic strength - croscopy and the torsional resonance technique, modelling of tip cantilever structures, scanning probe equipment, methods for elasticity and adhesion measurements at the nanometer scale in addition to optical purposes of scanning probe recommendations in keeping with near?eld Raman spectroscopy and imaging.

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Kirstein · A. Hierlemann 6 Constant-current sources are widely used in integrated circuits, and many approaches that cover the whole range from simple to high-precision and temperaturecompensated current sources, can be found in the literature [20, 21]. Potential problems in using the circuit topology of Fig. 4 include the signal sensitivity to temperature fluctuations and the fact that a piezoresistor fabricated in CMOS technology may feature a production-induced resistance spread of up to 20%.

U. Kirstein · A. Hierlemann 20. Rincon-Mora GA (2001) Voltage References: From Diodes to Precision High-Order Bandgap Circuits. Wiley, New York 21. Allen PE, Holberg DR (2002) CMOS Analog Circuit Design, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York 22. Gotszalk T, Grabiec P, Rangelow IW (2000) Piezoresistive sensors for scanning probe microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 82(1–4):39 23. King WP, Kenny TW, Goodson KE (2004) Appl Phys Lett 85:2086 24. Chow EM et al. (2002) Appl Phys Lett 80:664 25. Yu X et al.

8) where α, β, γ are coefficients in the range of −1 to 1, Fi are the force (input) values, Ai are the actuation (output) values, and R is a constant, programmable reference value. 11 depicts a filter structure that can be implemented in IC technology. The controller stores two precedent force and actuation values. The calculation is performed on a 16-bit multiplier-accumulator (MAC), and the result is clipped to 10 bits. One multiplication and addition operation are performed per clock cycle. The filter coefficients reflect thermal and mechanical time constants [29], the cantilever heat dissipation, and the selected averaging method.

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