By Donald F. Lach
Paperback version 1994
Read or Download Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume II: A Century of Wonder. Book 3: The Scholarly Disciplines PDF
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Paperback version 1994
http://press. uchicago. edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/A/bo3629513. html
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Extra info for Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume II: A Century of Wonder. Book 3: The Scholarly Disciplines
The ability of the Portuguese in opening and maintaining the sea road to the East rested on their success in welding the astronomers, cosmographers, cartographers, shipbuilders, and navigators into an effectively working team. 95 The route to India around the Cape was much more difficult than the route 90 See Needham, op. cit. (n. 1), IV, Pt. 3, 474; and G. P. B. Naish, "Ships and Shipbuilding," in Singer et al. ), op. cit. (n. 1), III, 474-7791 See Needham, op. cit. (n. 1), IV, Pt. 3, 664, 698.
N. 61), I, 109. ). , 1969), pp. 97, 133; also see Wightman, op. cit. (n. 61), I, 96. 60 [4I I ] Technology and the Natural Sciences more complex. Vague references to southern constellations and stars had appeared in the ancient works of Ptolemy and others. 64 But the constellations of the southern skies began to be described at first hand only in the sixteenth century. Like practically all stargazers, the early voyagers tried to find terrestrial objects in the configurations of the stars. Vespucci on his American voyages and Corsali in connection with his travels in Asia first noticed and described a constellation that came to be called Apus, or the bird of paradise, 6s the mythical bird of the Moluccas which also stirred the imaginations of contemporary collectors, naturalists, and emblem makers.
73), I, 309-16. [4 18 ] Nautics and Navigation to America and produced many more shipwrecks as well as a genre of tragic literature. 96 The navigator of the route to India, as Vasco da Gama quickly learned, had to be able to contend with the vagaries of both the Atlantic and the Indian oceans. When he first landed at Melinde, Da Gama and his aides learned new techniques from Ahmad Ibn-Majid, the eminent Arab navigator who piloted them across the Indian Ocean to Calicut. On his return to Portugal, Da Gama brought back several kamals, instruments used in the East for observing the altitude of the stars.