By Ng Bee Chin & Gillian Wigglesworth
Bilingualism: introduces scholars to key matters and issues that come with bilingual improvement and schooling; and the combination of social and cognitive views makes use of initiatives and examples to equip the reader with the required talents and insights to evaluate and interpret study drawn from bilingual populations accommodates case reports drawn from various international locations similar to the USA, South Africa, the Netherlands, Morocco, and the People's Republic of China gathers jointly influential readings from key names within the self-discipline, together with: Fred Genesee, Richard Bourhis, Elizabeth Peal, Wallace Lambert, Merrill Swain, Jim Cummins, and Ellen Bialystok. Written through skilled lecturers and researchers within the box, Bilingualism is an essential textbook for college students and researchers of utilized Linguistics. The accompanying site to this publication are available at http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415343879.
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Additional resources for Bilingualism: An Advanced Resource Book (Routledge Applied Linguistics)
Make a list, in order of importance, of the language skills you believe would be required. How would the list differ if the degree were in engineering? Probably the most widely cited model in language testing has been that of Bachman (1990), further developed in Bachman and Palmer (1996), who have proposed models of communicative language ability that take into account both language knowledge and strategic competence . Language knowledge includes the knowledge which is required to use language appropriately in particular contexts, and is made up of several components (Bachman and Palmer 1996).
Testing one or two of them might not be necessary at all? Provide examples and give reasons for your choices. Tests can vary on a number of different dimensions, and these dimensions have implications for both the validity and the reliability of the tests. While we cannot discuss these in any detail here, those interested in exploring the concepts underlying testing and assessment are directed to Bachman and Palmer (1996), Brown (2004), Henning (1987), Hughes (1989) and Fulcher and Davidson (2007).
Previous page page_30 next page > < previous page page_31 next page > Page 31 Alternative types of assessment There are also alternative ways of making assessments about language knowledge, and these include portfolio assessments where individuals collect a number of samples of their work which demonstrate their language ability. As Diaz Rico and Weed (1995) suggest, such portfolio assessments may include written work, self-assessments, reports, dictations, audio recordings etc. and are designed to show the learner’s progress over time.