Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues by Y. C. Fung

By Y. C. Fung

The target of this booklet is still similar to that said within the first variation: to provide a finished point of view of biomechanics from the stand aspect of bioengineering, body structure, and clinical technology, and to boost mechanics via a series of difficulties and examples. My three-volume set of Bio­ mechanics has been accomplished. they're entitled: Biomechanics: Mechanical homes of residing Tissues; Biodynamics: circulate; and Biomechanics: movement, circulate, pressure, and development; and this is often the 1st quantity. The mechanics prerequisite for all 3 volumes continues to be on the point of my booklet a primary path in Continuum Mechanics (3rd version, Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 1993). within the decade of the Nineteen Eighties the sector of Biomechanics improved tremen­ dously. New advances were made in all fronts. those who impact the fundamental knowing of the mechanical homes of residing tissues are defined intimately during this revision. The references are mentioned thus far.

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13: 1. At the room temperature, it is quite impossible to make experiments over such a wide range of frequencies. Actual tests were done at different temperatures, and the data were converted to room temperature by certain thermomechanical considerations. It often happens that many relaxation functions of the type of Eq. (1) can fit the relaxation data (because the determination of the constants Cl' C2· •• r b r 2 . . is nonunique and multiple choices are possible). Similarly, many such functions can fit the creep data.

In the period 1848-1851 Thomson worked on the dynamic theory of heat and formulated the first and second laws of thermodynamics, which reconciled the work of Carnot, Rumford, Davy, Mayer, and Joule. In connection with the second law, he searched for supporting evidence in irreversible processes that are revealed in the mechanical properties of matter. , in the form of a torsional pendulum (using these materials as the torsional spring). When the pendulum was set in motion, the amplitude of its oscillations decayed exponentially, and the number of cycles required for the amplitude to be reduced to one-half of the initial value could be taken as a measure of the "internal friction" of the material.

It may happen that none of the models can fit all the experimental data. Then we may have to concede that the linearized viscoelasticity theory does not apply at all. 12 Consider the generalized Kelvin model of a linear viscoelastic body as shown in Fig. 12(a), where fl'S are spring constants and 11'S are the viscosity coefficients of the dashpots. Derive (a) the differential equation relating the force Fand displacement u, (b), the creep function, and (c), the relaxation function. + 1 JI. 12 A generalized Kelvin body.

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