Biomimetic robotics by Vepa R.

By Vepa R.

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In one sense birds are different from manmade aircraft in that some birds, such as the sparrowhawk, are able to clap and fling. This is a beating motion about an axis that is pitch forward. Rapid beating results in a quick increase in the angle of attack, which in turn generates lift about an axis normal to the axis of beating. Thus it is able to generate a lift component equal to the weight of the bird and a thrust component that keeps it in aerial equilibrium and hover. Wing motion of a bird will generally consist of four fundamental motions: (1) flapping motion in a vertical plane, (2) lead–lag motion, which denotes a posterior and anterior motion in the horizontal plane, (3) feathering motion, which denotes a twisting motion of the wing pitch, and (4) spanning motion, which denotes an alternately extending and contracting motion of the wing span.

2002). The influence of visual landscape on the free flight behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, J. Exp. Biol. 205, 327–343. 1. (a) Sagittal plane views of biped models of walking, (b) in a ballistic mode. 2 Principles of Legged Locomotion Interest in locomotion in humans and animals has also spurned the development of new biomimetics mechanisms. Primarily this is due to the realization that human joints are not lower kinematic pairs and that they could be modeled as four-bar mechanisms and due to the insight gained into the kinematics of walking.

In practice, however, there are several types of binary joints of all shapes, sizes, and designs. One of the simplest joints is the revolute joint, which interconnects the two links in such a way that the free link is constrained to rotate only about a single axis. Each revolute joint introduces five constraints on a connecting link and thus permits it with one additional rotational DOF. It is one of three one-DOF-lower kinematic pairs or binary joints, characterized by a surface contact (identified by the German kinematician Franz Reuleaux in 1876), two of which are essentially nonrevolute with only a translational DOF.

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