By Eberhard Schnepf (auth.), Professor Dr. Walter Hoppe, Professor Dr. Wolfgang Lohmann, Professor Dr. Hubert Markl, Professor Dr. Hubert Ziegler (eds.)
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In cells with high respiratory activity, e. , in muscle or in kidney, the mitochondria are especially rich in cristae. The matrix contains the soluble enzymes of the citrate cycle and of fatty acid degradation as well as DNA and ribosomes. The mitochondrial DNA (mitDNA) of higher animals is a ring of about 5 11m. In plants it can be longer. It is not associated with histones and does not hybridize with nuclear DNA. The ribosomes resemble in size (70S), in structure, and in sensitivity against some antibiotics the ribosomes of prokaryotes rather than those of the eukaryotic cytoplasm.
The recycling materials can perhaps be reused, in part directly, in part after further transformation, to be incorporated into the ER or the Golgi apparatus. Experiments with radioactive-labeled precursors show that in animal glands, e. , in pancreas, the time between the application of an amino acid and its secretion in form of a glycoproteid is about 1-2 h, the passage through the Golgi apparatus takes most ofthe time. In some plant cells which secrete polysaccharides, a newly formed vesicle extrudes its content within a few minutes.
In endocytosis, membrane areas invaginate and, finally, detach to form a vesicle (Fig. 4) ; molecules and particles which are attached at or surrounded by the membrane come into the protoplast. By phagocytosis, amoebae and leukocytes take up larger particles, e. , bacteria. In pinocytosis, the particles are rather molecules, they adsorb at the plasmalemma before they are taken up. Special membrane coats (Sect. 2) and contractile micro filaments (Sect. 3) often are involved in endocytosis. The resorbed materials are digested in lysosomes (Sect.