Bitumens, asphalts, and tar sands by G.V. Chilingarian and T.F. Yen (Eds.)

By G.V. Chilingarian and T.F. Yen (Eds.)

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8 5 months 6 months 8 months I0 months I2 months 1 1 1 . G - 44 50 40 W U 5 30 w U ;10 t >I Aromatics 1300 O C I I - 10 b 0 50 i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 TIME IWnlhnl 0 4 0 I . 1 2 3 -+ 4 6 5 8 7 3 1 0 1 1 1 2 TlMElkbnlnsl 60 50 ;4 0 < z + 30 c w 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 TIME i W n i n i l Fig. 3-7. Change with time in gross composition of Aquitaine asphalt by thermal treatment at 30OoC. lignite sample, found a similar striking correlation with the natural diagenesis of terrestrial organic matter observed in boreholes in New Zealand.

The latter parameter is frequently expressed by the carbon preference index (CPI) which, for the whole n-alkane spectrum, defines the ratio of the concentrations of odd- and even-numbered paraffins [ 26,271. The odd-even preference (OEP) curve [ 281, which represents the odd/even ratio for each n-alkane individually, clearly provides more detailed information; therefore, it has been used by the writers. Branched- and cyclic-alkane fractions from different extracts are compared by visual inspection of their gas-chromatographic patterns, which, usually, show various characteristic peaks or groups of peaks.

Simultaneously, n-alkanes reached their widest distribution (Fig. 3-4d), whereas steranes and triterpanes disappeared altogether (Fig. 3-9). Generation of pyrobitumen continued until, after eight months, roughly half of the organic matter had been converted. Again, this conversion took place mostly at the expense of the asphaltene fraction (Fig. 3-7). 5 E I- Y V z Y 3 z 2 x a Y I 8- 2 wl 9 K z V 2 months-300 " C Fig. 3-9. Gas chromatogram of branched-cyclic alkanes from an Aquitaine asphalt sample heated at 3OO0C.

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