By Kees d'Angremond, F. van Roode
Breakwaters and closure dams belong to the main awesome hydraulic constructions. they're uncovered to the main critical loading by way of waves and currents, both in the course of their development, or in the course of their existence cycle.
Design and development of those constructions are so vitally interrelated right understanding requires an intensive wisdom of the theory and a formal figuring out of useful concerns.
This publication deals an essential, integrated combination of thought and perform to the graduate student. Beginning with a description of the sensible standards, it discusses the proper concept and exhibits the appliance of expertise and theoretical wisdom to the layout.
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Extra resources for Breakwaters and closure dams
Velsink and Thoresen approach this question from a different angle. Thoresen gives values for acceptable ship movements; Velsink  gives limiting wave heights for different directions. The approach of Velsink relates more directly to the functional requirements of the breakwater. Therefore, his data are given in Table 4-2. A comprehensive review of the problem of ship movements is given in PIANC report II-24 . 5 Table 4-2 Maximum wave heights for loading and unloading operations How often the exceeding of these limits is accepted is not indicated in the above figures.
In coastal engineering this is the classical example of erosion problems due to interruption of the longshore transport. A good example is given in Figure 4-7, which shows the actual situation in IJmuiden (The Netherlands). Even if the breakwater is present, sedimentation of the port’s entrance channel may occur. This happens when so much sediment has been deposited on the upstream side of the breakwater that the accumulated material reaches the end of the breakwater and passes around it’s head.
3 Phases During the design process, one can also recognise certain phases that in some countries are related to the general conditions of contract between employer and consultant. Therefore the phases may vary from country to country. The contractual contents of each phase are subject to modifications in the same way. A logical set of phases is: Initiative Formulation of the ultimate goals of the design object as part of the system. Feasibility Review of the system with respect to technical, economic, social and environmental consequences and feasibility.