By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Extra resources for Business Tendency Surveys: A Handbook (Statistics (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development).)
If it is desired to retain this information for users, one possibility is to show the percentage of (=) replies either alongside or below the balances. 19 The balances are shown in the first (clear) part of the column and the percentage of (=) answers in the second (shaded) part. Diffusion indices 103. As explained, balances (B) are calculated as: B = 100 ( P – N ), (1) while diffusion indices (DI) are calculated as: DI = 100 ( P + E/2 ), (2) where P is the fraction of (+) replies in the total, N is the fraction of (-) replies in the total, and E is the fraction of (=) replies in the total.
Response rates in practice 83. Chart 1 shows response rates achieved in business tendency surveys in 19 OECD countries. Seven countries had response rates of below 80% and six below 70%. At the upper end, only one country claimed a 100% response rate, with five recording response rates of 90%. The data refer to the mid-1990s but while response rates will have changed for individual countries the overall picture is probably still valid. 9 Chart 1. Response Rates in 19 OECD Countries 8 No. of countries 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 50 -59 60 - 69 70 - 79 80 - 89 Percentage response rates 90 - 100 Measurement Errors 84.
Survey questions asking for an appreciation of past and future changes usually specify a previous or future period for comparison. In the standardised questionnaires in Annex A, “three or four months” is suggested as the reference period. 188. In formulating their replies, respondents may refer to other reference periods in the past and in the future. The appreciation of past changes may for example be answered with reference to the corresponding period of the previous year as a way of excluding seasonal problems, and not with reference to the period specified in the questionnaire.