Choctaws and Missionaries in Mississippi, 1818-1918 by Clara Sue Kidwell

By Clara Sue Kidwell

The present-day Choctaw groups in important Mississippi are a tribute to the facility of the Indian humans either to conform to new events and to discover safe haven opposed to the surface international via their strong point. Clara Sue Kidwell, whose great-great-grandparents migrated from Mississippi to Indian Territory alongside the path of Tears in 1830, the following tells the tale of these Choctaws who selected to not flow yet to stick at the back of in Mississippi.As Kidwell indicates, their tale is heavily interwoven with that of the missionaries who verified the 1st missions within the zone in 1818. whereas the U.S. executive sought to “civilize” Indians in the course of the organization of Christianity, many Choctaw tribal leaders in flip demanded schooling from Christian missionaries. The missionaries allied themselves with those leaders, typically mixed-bloods; in so doing, the alienated themselves from the full-blood parts of the tribe and hence did not in achieving frequent Christian conversion and schooling. Their failure contributed to the turning out to be arguments in Congress and via Mississippi voters that the Choctaws might be circulation to the West and their territory opened to white settlement.The missionaries did identify literacy one of the Choctaws, although, with ironic results. even if the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830 pressured the Choctaws to maneuver west, its fourteenth article only if those that desired to stay in Mississippi may declare land as members and remain within the country as deepest voters. The claims have been principally denied, and those that remained have been usually pushed from their lands through white purchasers, but the Choctaws maintained their groups by means of clustering round the few males who did get identify to lands, through retaining conventional customs, and via carrying on with to talk the Choctaw language. Now Christian missionaries provided the Indian groups a motor vehicle for survival instead of assimilation.

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On May 29, 1539, Hernando de Soto, the Spanish governor of Florida, landed on the gulf coast of the Florida peninsula, probably somewhere near present Tampa, with a party of some six Page 5 hundred Spanish soldiers. He sought to establish the claims of the Spanish government to the rich interior of southeastern North America. His entrada introduced major changes into native life, one of the most significant of which was disease. In the province of Cofitachiqui (near present-day Augusta, Georgia), he sent the natives messages of peace and requests for food.

Jean Baptiste's son, Louis, was born on June 29, 1762. Louis married Rebecca and Nancy Cravat, who were of mixed French-English-Choctaw heritage and nieces of Pushmataha. S. government opened on the Pearl River near present-day Jackson, and the Natchez Trace became the prominent road through the Choctaw territory in 1801, Louis opened a station on the Trace. S. government. Trading posts and licensed traders, for instance, were a way of ensuring that Indians were treated fairly (an ulterior motive being to win Page 20 their friendship away from British and Spanish interests).

2'004973dc2094-30374 CIP The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources, Inc. Copyright © 1995 by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Publishing Division of the University. All rights reserved. A. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Page v Contents Preface ix Introduction xiii 1. In the Beginning 3 2. Civilization and the Choctaws 15 3. The First Coming 29 4. The Progress of Civilization, 182124 50 5.

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